Emy E. A. Jalil
University of Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
This paper reveals how factors associated with household recycling systems affect household recycling behaviour, and how household recycling behaviour affects the provision of household recycling systems by the local authorities (LA). The main objective is to reveal and explain the interaction and symbiosis effects between household recycling system and household recycling behaviour. Using a mixed methodology stance, the first approach is a qualitative research stage supported the symbiosis effect between the LAs and the householders. The second approach is quantitative research stage employed multiple regression analysis that juxtaposed the existence of interactions between personal factors and situational factors which the representation of LAs and the householders respectively. Finally, co-examination between the first and second stages revealed the need to use symbiosis effect perspective in understanding backward movement between householders and household recycling waste systems. This study has found that a "symbiosis effect" perspective appears to be a robust framework to bring together effective household waste recycling systems and sustainable development considerations to enhance both sustainability and the economy. Further, the study provides empirical evidence examining both situational and personal factors of households and their interactions, which were previously not well-understood. This study has incorporated behavioral aspects in the reverse logistics process that should help improve the LAs’ planning processes.